If a Muslim is one who always wore gloves, the Bung Karno was not a Muslim.
If a Muslim is that they always use the turban, it is also clear Bung Karno was not a Muslim.
But if someone believes that Muslims are those who carry out any orders and run away from His prohibition, then I can say that the Bung Karno was a devout Muslim.
Bung Karno was not the figure of a Muslim students. That why he is not recognized as a leader of Islam. Bung Karno did not lose much to write about Islam, even he has more to write and speak about Islam, the issue of Islamic ideas, rather than Dr. Sukiman are actually talking more about Indonesian nationalism. Therefore from the history of the position should be reconsidered as Bung Karno, at least, a Muslim thinker, who contributed, it simply means, in the discourse. Even Bung Karno in the field may have contributed enormously in Islamic proselytizing, especially in Indonesia.
Not many people know, that Bung Karno, is the key to the establishment of Salman Mosque on the campus of ITB. At one time, the committee Salman mosque establishment in the 1960s, has failed to put development at the campus mosque. But the Bung Karno suddenly asked the status of the development plan and also asked the committee to call the image and development. After discussion and comment, he wrote in rancana I call this mosque Masjid Salman, with the initials Soek.
That means the Bung Karno selakuPresidenRI, has menyetui establishment of a mosque on campus. In fact, the rectorate has rejected a request that the mosque was built outside the campus. Thus, it is Salman mosque university campuses in the country the first in Indonesia, which is then followed by the establishment of Arief Rahman Hakim mosque, on the UI campus, Salemba, Salahuddin Mosque, the mosque on the campus of GMU or Broken Raden, on the UB campus. Subsequent establishment of the campus mosque was followed by almost all universities have a campus. Salman Mosque model follows the vision of a modern mosque is not only a center of worship (prayer place only), tetepi also a cultural center and proselytizing activities in ka Langan educated, especially students.
Salman naming nor arbitrary. Bung Karno reflects knowledge about Islam. In the history of Islam, a friend of Salman from Persia, regarded as an architect, who proposed and led the construction of a castle moat in Chandaq War (War of the Trench). Interpretrasi historical figures against Salman was received by the scholars and clerics and became popular interpretrasi spoken in lectures and sermons, sermon Friday in proselytizing discourse. Since the emergence of Salman’s name as an architect friend of the Prophet, the Muslim architect profession is recognized and become popular.Architectural pattern of the modern mosque, is also growing, although thanks to the creativity Ir. Noekman, which is known as a Muslim architect of Salman Mosque of ITB.In this connection, can not be forgotten, even self cents Bung Karno was an architect.
But the services of Bung Karno as cultural thinkers did not stop there. He received also the idea of Haji Agus Salim, who dijulukinya The Grand Old Man, the nickname was also accepted and became popular in the discourse of Islamic movements in Indonesia, although Haji Agus Salim never gave a sharp critique of the idea of nationalism Bung Karno, to build a mosque Baitul Rahim, a mosque in the courtyard with beautiful architecture, which is often compared to the church. Sukarno’s vision of the mosque reached its peak with the establishment of the Istiqlal mosque, which is an acknowledgment of service of Muslims in the struggle for independence, because independence means Istiqlal, which arsteknya is a Christian, Ir. Silaban. It all reflects the religious views of Bung Karno wide and open. Difficult to find the view that as a liberal Muslim thinker Bung Karno.
However, the Bung Karno still not recognized as a leader or leaders of Islam and Muslims are also not recognized as an Islamic thinker. Or in the formulation of a more taxable, such as Noorsena Bambang said, the critics of Islam among politicians, doubting the purity of Islam Bung Karno. Syed Hussein Alatas, a sociologist Malaysia, who long taught at the University of Singapore, has written a book about Islam and Us, and in the book he presents four national leaders of Indonesia and the relation with Islam. There he called Bung Karno as a Muslim leader but do not have the commitment of Islamic struggle and even politically challenging Islam. Figures which he called Islam an ideal leader is Syafruddin Prawiranegara, a scholar who has thought about Islam and are committed to the movement and political Islam. There are two more figures which he discussed, namely Sutan Syahrir and Tan Malaka. Syahrir is born to a Muslim family in Minangkabau, the birthplace of many Islamic leaders, including Haji Agus Salim and Mohammad Natsir, but he has been a leader when it has been uprooted (uprooted) from their communities and become indifferent (indefferent) was against Islam. Tan Malaka was a Muslim who was claimed, have the knowledge and thinking menganai Islam, but basically he was a communist who wants to manipulate Islam and Muslims struggle to achieve the goal of communism in Indonesia.
Bung Karno, as a Muslim is the opposite of Syahrir. He did come from a family of new abangan and at the age of 18 years became acquainted with Islam. But then it developed into a Muslim, although not yet able or may not want to be called students.Even though it was, people like A. Hassan or Mohammad Natsir, not meragukann belief in Islam. Perhaps he accurately described as a Muslim marginal.
There are several factors that shape people’s perceptions of the Bung Karno. First he considered to have the background and still influenced Hinduism and Buddhism, or may still be influenced by what the anthropologist Clifford Geertz, the religion of Java.Apparent doctrine masdih puppet influence, although he is a modern Western education. Secondly, he often expresses himself as a Marxist or at least use the (partial) Marxist theory in his analyzes in a taped interview entitled The Veil is a symbol Perbudan (Flag of Islam, 1939), he once said with pride:
I am a disciple of Marx Historische School van. This statement is very bold, because his confession was issued just as he was berebicara about Islam, particularly Islamic views about women.
One thing we ignore is not biased Bung Karno get honorary doctorates in the fields of unity, by a prestigious religious institution, IAIN Syarif Hidayatullah, even a degree in philosophy honoris causa by the University of Al Azhar, Cairo, Egypt. It is not possible degree awarded by a university such as Al Azhar Islamic, it is doubtful if the institution Bung Karno faith in monotheism.
At a young age, Bung Karno was a member of SI SI Islam and the Islamic Party. Indeed, he later quit the party and founded his own PNI together with friends who shared an embrace nationalist secular nationalist stream. But it still retain its image as a Muslim, among others, by joining with the Muhammadiyah, an organization that berfaham hard monotheism (tawhid hard). He even was a member of a local board, when in exile in Berkulu. As a member and activist Muhyammadiyah, Soekarno was issued a slogan which became very popular and became the watchword of all members of the Muhammadiyah, Muhammadiyah Once that is fixed Muhammadiyah. It is said that he never intestate, if passed, he was carried in a coffin which was closed with the flag of Muhammadiyah. Sukarno was a lot of young people to meet and be influenced by the Islamic Union of Islamic flow was raised by A. Hassan, where a prominent Muslim leader, Mohammad Natsir educated. He had also claimed to be interested and learned a great deal of thought Ahmadiyah. But her last option is the wing of Muhammadiyah clean as clean-monotheism.
Bung Karno began to study Islam seriously, when he was in prison Sukamiskin, Bandung, where he read the publications of Islamic Unity, now might be called the flow of Islamic fundamentalism, as al-Islam, Solo, where M. Amien Rais had long studied.Learning activities intensified when he settles in Endeh, Flores. In situ and at this time that he corresponded with A. Hassan, leader of the Union of Islamic educational institutions which initially centered in London but then moved to Bangil, East Java today is known as a magazine publisher Al Mu-slimun.
But, before the letters of Endeh, the young Sukarno already have a perception about Islam, which he apparently obtained from the teacher and once-in-law, HOSTjokroaminoto. Perception about Islam is that Islam is a religion of simple, rational and contain the idea of progress (idea of pro-gress) and egalitarian.
Beyond the concern for Islam as a doctrine, a young Soekarno actually pay attention to the Islamic community or the condition of Muslims, in the context of colonialism and imperialism. In addition to deepening the teachings of Islam, both in terms of worship and siyasa (politics) and mu’amalah (socio-economic), Sukarno was concerned about aspects of society and religious ideologies. In looking at the social aspects, Sukarno was involved and led the national movement and study the social sciences and history, including the works of Karl Marx, was disappointed and did not approve of traditional Islamic ideologies. Young Sukarno, though still and want to learn about Islam, but had dared to express his opinions are critical.
A very energetic young Sukarno, attacking the doctrine of taqlid and ijtihad closed the door attitude. He challenged the orthodoxy, superstition, heresy and anti-rationalism espoused by the Muslim community of Indonesia. He argues that Islam has been incorrectly interpreted, because the Muslims and the clerical more trust and be guided by the hadith, hadith and the opinions of scholars, rather than be guided by the Koran.He never asked for submissions book kunpulan Bukhari hadith, because he suspected the circulation of these false hadith that contradicts the Koran. Here the young Sukarno had entered the hadith criticism of thought, which only recently have become the attention of academic study. Sukarno’s view is not new, because the themes that have been taken by the wing moderbis Muhammadiyah movement. Because of this, the young Sukarno truth is Saxon modernist Islam.
In studying Islam, Bung Karno request materials from the Islamic Association of London, he wanted to match it with his own views. He wanted to read the book The Spirit of Islam Syed Ameer Ali’s famous example, to compare with his own views. Because he has perceptions and assumptions about the teachings of Islam, then he wanted to show his own views about Islam. He thought, should be made criticism of the notions of traditional Islam, to then be returned to the source of the most authentic teachings of Islam, the Koran. Surprisingly, Sukarno was a vibrant, modern science recommends wearing (modern science), such as social sciences, biology, astronomy or electromagnetic tronika to understand al Qur’an.
In his own words:
Sahaja not return to the Qur’an and Hadith, but returned to the Qur’an and Hadith by driving his vehicle general knowledge. He was critical of tafseer, such as made-up Al-Baghawi, Al and Al-Baidhawi Mazhari, because the interpretations were not wearing pengatahuan modern science.
Distant view seen in the following words:
How can people truly understand the word of God that all things were made by Him ‘paired-jodohan’, if you do not know the biology, not knowing the electron, positive and negative do not know, not to know the action and reaction?. How can people mengatahui word that you see and think of the mountain, the mountain was tough stuff, but everything is running as a cloud, and in fact the ceiling is a substance similar to its origin in force, then we cracked and and we make all living things than water, if you do not understand astronomy? And how to understand the verses that narrates Alexander the, if not to understand a little history and Archaeology?
This approach is later followed by the Muslim scientist like Sahirul Alim, M. Ahmad Baiquni or Immaduddin Abdurrahim.
He suggested that Muslims were not looked back, including just-agungkanzaman mengaung admire and glory of Islam (Islamic Glory), but look far come forward. The key is to throw away his anti-Western priori. He also criticized what he called the traditional attitude of the spirit and the spirit of dates turban. Another suggestion put forward is not fixated on the halal and haram, but also to things that are permissible and Casinos, which the Muslims have the freedom to think, according to the hadith the prophet, “You know more about your world issues (you yourselves bi a’lamu umuri duniakum). “
Not only in the field of thought, much Sukarno advocated the attention, but also in the field of da’wah. He admired the Catholic missionary activity in Flores and recommends that the same thing can be done by the Islamic da’wah.
Criticism of the young Sukarno was blunt and harsh, so he himself can feel misunderstood as anti-Islam. Although aware of the risk, he did not stop criticizing the notions of conservative Islam. But more precisely, in the field of da’wah he is more sympathetic to muballig-muballig modern-scientific and criticized muballig-turbaned clerics and preachers ala ala Hadramaut. He would appreciate for instance, as Mohammat muballig Natsir who wrote Islam in Dutch for the intelligentsia.
He seems to want, so that the Muslims developed the terms of the prophet Muhammad keduniaanya had mberikan freedom of thought. In the formulation of his own he said:
We do not remember that the Prophet himself had menjaizkan world affairs to our own hand, concerning the affairs of the world, confirming all the affairs of the world is good and not haram or makruh. We are very generous with the word kafir, we loved to label all items with a new cap infidels. Western knowledge-pagan, radio and medicine – pagan slacks and tie and hat-pagan, spoon and fork and seat-pagan, Latin writings – infidel, yes relationships with people who are not Islampun – heathen! In fact what we call Islam?Roch Islam is not a burning, Islam is not a fire burning, not the Islamic Amal is awesome, but …. dates and incense and robes and kohl eye!
Criticisms of the old-fashioned traditional Islam, it felt sharp. Tetepi espresi it tru juice sebanarnya honest attitude. He is not afraid of being labeled anti-Islam. But the attitude is wanted kemaju it seems to have caused an aggravation of A. Hassan, so that the accused had been carried away easily Soekarno, so it tends to justify what in jurisprudence called haram. Sukarno’s much criticized ideas and ways of thinking and way of thinking taqlid jurisprudence of previous scholars. He wanted her to do a reinterpretation fikir and directly to the Qur’an and Hadith are valid, because he believed that the Hadith is authentic does not conflict with the rationalism and kemoderanan.
Indeed, the criticism Haji Agus Salim, A. Hassan and Mohammad Natsir, sometimes quite badly, for example, the correct understanding patriotism that could plunge us into idolizing country, nation and race.
Sukarno did not feel a grudge against his critics, even he would appreciate that kind of thinking of Haji Agus Salim and Natsir. When Bung Karno has menjadiPresidenRI, he even raised Natsir as a secretary whom he believes. Many lamented that the relationship Natsir-Soekarno’s cracks. Islam itself many deplore the attitude of Natsir instance, why he did not maintain a relationship with Sukarno, even closer political and even follow the Syahrir
His criticism of the traditional Islamic understanding, no matter how sharp and hard. His criticisms are clearly displayed in his article titled: Sunscreen is a symbol of slavery, not commanded by the Islamic veil.
But here, it seems both Bung Karno prejudice against Islam. He does not challenge the teachings of Islam itself, but said that the Islamic veil is not mandated. He does not believe that mensekat group of men and women that are orders of Islam. Bung Karno’s view was confirmed by Haji Agus Salim. But the attitude of his own firm, Bung Karno and Uncompromising. He even had protested by leaving a meeting of Muhammadiyah, as it was made of the veil, when he saw the veil is a symbol of female slavery.
Young Sukarno himself attracted to Islam because the discourse of Abduh and Sheikh Mohammad Jamaluddin Al syed afghanis known as a pioneer of modernist Islamic schools dikiuti by Masyumi and Muhammadiyah.
Young Soekarno acknowledge the so-called Islamism is an ideology, like Marxism and Nationalism. But the concept of Islamism itself is no longer growing, but some of Mohammad Natsir writing about the concept of state in Islam or Islam as the state that is still very common.This shows how much progress has been thinking about the possible development of Bung Karno an ideology of Islamism. Here we do not see that Bung Karno’s anti-political Islam.
Islam is still about Soekarno was explained:
Islamists should not be forgotten, that capitalism is the enemy of Marxism, Islamism is the enemy too! For Warde meer along Marxism, dalamn virtually no mortal that all schools of Islam rather than usury. Meer Warde, was a theory: take the work of other people, do not give a share profit that should be a portion of the workers who bekarja it issued a profit, meerwarde theories were developed by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that capitalism menarangkan origin-origin case. Meerwarde that is the life of every rule that is capitalistic; to fight the Marxist meerwarde is battling through the acres of capitalism at its roots!
His view that a thorough and open menganai Islam portrayed in his article in the Banner of Islam (1940) about young `Me ‘his understanding of Islam. In his essay, he argued, among others flkesibilitas preporisi about Islamic law. Apparently his view was criticized sharply and cynically by A. Hassan. In fact, Soekarno was quoted Syed Ameer Ali’s views in his book The Spirit of Islam. Sukarno’s just the term is less precise, ie assuming that the flexibility of the rubber, so that was captured by A. Hassan, that Soekarno Islamic law considers it as the law of rubber:
law must be like a rubber thumb, he says,
and kekaretan is especially so in the laws of Islam.
Yet according to his image, that law must be strictly for men what is called the guarantee of legal certainty.
In his writings on Islam rejuvenate the sense that Bung Karno in fact want to promote Islam and Islamic societies. He wants to Islam who had dimudakan was able to bring a motor and a change of society. Only in the political life, Bung Karno did not approve the use of Islamic symbols. He wants to understand Islam into nationhood. He also branded the Islamic system of grammatical-nationality approve a system of parliamentary democracy was regarded as a bourgeois democracy. Presumably he hoped Islam has its own concept of democracy that led to the idea of guided democracy, which is roughly based on democratic deliberation than on freedom to provide opportunities for the growth of capitalism.
In the spectrum of Islamic leadership in Indonesia, Bung Karno occupy a unique position. He contributes his thoughts of Islam with the analysis of modern social science is not done by any Muslim leader. If it were it not for people like Bung Karno among Muslims, a Bung Karno need to be found, separti Samualton Paul’s words to Milton Friedman, that a man like him should be invented. Therefore, this discussion is meant to perform rediscovery of the Bung Karno as an original thinker of Islam. And not controversial. This effort is an argument that the Bung Karno was not a sikretis, but a religion of pure monotheism, as did he identify himself as Muhammadiyah.